Effect van luchtvervuiling op het denkvermogen.

Een selectie van wetenschappelijke publicaties:

“Air pollution affects neurodevelopment, leading to lower cognitive test outcomes, negatively affecting mental and motor development.”
“Although results were not statistically significant, the associations found between exposure to NO2 and cognitive functions suggest that traffic-related air pollution may have an adverse effect on neurodevelopment, especially early in life, even at low exposure levels.”
“Children attending schools with higher traffic-related air pollution had a smaller improvement in cognitive development.”
“The evidence to date is coherent in that exposure to a range of largely traffic-related pollutants has been associated with quantifiable impairment of brain development in the young and cognitive decline in the elderly. There is insufficient evidence at present to comment on consistency, in view of the different indices of pollution and end-points measured, the limited number of studies, and the probability at this stage of publication bias. However, plausible toxicological mechanisms have been demonstrated and the evidence as a whole suggests that vehicular pollution, at least, contributes to cognitive impairment, adding to pressure on governments and individuals to continue to reduce air pollution.”
“Air pollution has a negative impact on one's health and on the central nervous system. We decided to assess studies that evaluated the relationship between air pollution and cognitive functions in children and adolescents by reviewing studies that had been published between January 2009 and May 2019. We searched three major databases for original works (26 studies) and for studies using brain imaging methods based on MRI (six studies). Adverse effects of air pollutants on selected cognitive or psychomotor functions were found in all of the studies. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide, for example, was linked to impaired working memory, general cognitive functions, and psychomotor functions; particulate matter 2.5 was linked to difficulties in working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, and fine motor function.”
“There are still significant knowledge gaps in understanding the intrusion and retention of exogeneous particles into the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we uncovered various exogeneous fine particles in human cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) and identified the ambient environmental or occupational exposure sources of these particles, including commonly found particles (e.g., Fe- and Ca-containing ones) and other compositions that have not been reported previously (such as malayaite and anatase TiO2), by mapping their chemical and structural fingerprints. Furthermore, using mouse and in vitro models, we unveiled a possible translocation pathway of various inhaled fine particles from the lung to the brain through blood circulation (via dedicated biodistribution and mechanistic studies). Importantly, with the aid of isotope labeling, we obtained the retention kinetics of inhaled fine particles in mice, indicating a much slower clearance rate of localized exogenous particles from the brain than from other main metabolic organs. Collectively, our results provide a piece of evidence on the intrusion of exogeneous particles into the CNS and support the association between the inhalation of exogenous particles and their transport into the brain tissues. This work thus provides additional insights for the continued investigation of the adverse effects of air pollution on the brain.”
"This paper studies the causal impact of indoor air quality on the cognitive performance of individuals using data from official chess tournaments. We use a chess engine to evaluate the quality of moves made by individual players and merge this information with measures of air quality inside the tournament venue. The results show that poor indoor air quality hampers cognitive performance significantly. We find that an increase in the indoor concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 10 μg/m3 increases a player's probability of making an erroneous move by 26.3%. The impact increases in both magnitude and statistical significance with rising time pressure. The effect of the indoor concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is smaller and only matters during phases of the game when decisions are taken under high time stress. Exploiting temporal as well as spatial variation in outdoor pollution, we provide evidence suggesting a short-term and transitory effect of fine particulate matter on cognition."
"Wildfires have increased in frequency and severity over the past two decades, threatening to undo substantial air quality improvements. We investigate the relationship between wildfire smoke exposure and learning outcomes across the United States using standardized test scores from 2009–2016 for nearly 11,700 school districts and satellite-derived estimates of daily smoke exposure. Relative to a school year with no smoke, average cumulative smoke-attributable PM2.5 (surface particulate matter <2.5 μg m−3) exposure during the school year (~35 μg m−3) reduces test scores by ~0.15% of a standard deviation. These impacts are more pronounced among younger students and are observed across differing levels of economic disadvantage and racial/ethnic composition. Additionally, we project that smoke PM2.5 exposure in 2016 reduced discounted future earnings by nearly $1.7 billion ($111 per student). Roughly 80% of these costs are borne by disadvantaged districts. Our findings quantify a previously unaccounted for social cost of wildfire that is likely to worsen under a warming climate."
"Exposure to common air pollutants during pregnancy may predispose children to problems regulating their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors later on, according to a new study led by researchers at the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health within Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health and New York State Psychiatric Institute. The new study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of early life exposure to a common air pollutant known as PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on self-regulating behaviors and social competency that incorporates multiple assessment points across childhood. Children with poor self-regulation skills have difficulty managing disruptive thoughts, emotions, and impulses; poor social competency limits their ability to get along with others. The findings appear in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry."